Please refer to Plant Safety for Eidos general approach to single plant QRA/PHA.
The Refinery level QRA/PHA/safety report is the best place to develop the following ancillary studies:
- Domino effects: Eidos developed a complete set of methods to evaluate domino effects due to heat radiation, explosion bursts and missiles production by blasts. Domino effects from missiles production are typical of plant made of ductile materials located outdoor. These requirements are perfectly fitted by Refineries
- Building and control room vulnerability. This issue is particularly important in centralized control room where the needs of evacuate the control-room and of keeping the other plants running are conflicting. Keeping the other plants running is often the best solution to avoid spreading the human resources over a greater playing field during an emergency in case the remaining plants are not directly and immediately threatened. For more details on this topic please refer to the specific Industrial Safety page.
- Plant layout based risks. This is an important aspect of a Refinery because usually the risks of a plant reach great distances, but spreading the plants over a huge area is not an option due to the high-cost related
- Plant risks in case of unavailability of ancillary systems (Electrical Power, Fuel Gas, Steam, Nitrogen, Cooling Water, Instrument Air, Control signals, etc.). This study is developed for complete or partial unavailability (p.e. a single switchboard, etc.) and has a great role in Refineries where the ancillaries are usually very centralized with huge networks
- “Outside the fence”land-use compatibility. Usually refineries are quite remote so this issue is not really relevant. It is more important for refineries inside or in the nearby of Petrochemical sites
- Functional safety – SIL evaluation.
- Exposure risks for personnel (on customer request)
Eidos prepares QRA/PHA studies employing different references/standards to fulfil customers’ requirements (AIChE Guidelines, API, 2012/18/UE directive, OSHA CPL 03.00.010 “NEP”, UK COMAH regulations, customers own best practice, etc.)
QRA/PHA of a Refinery is usually prepared on the following occasions:
- At the end of basic design or FEED of a new plant if this involves site-wide concerns (please refer to Engineering Assistance)
- Pre-startup safety review: in case of a new industrial site or after significant modifications to an existing site
- At least every five years (this requirement is coded by 2012/18/UE directive regulations and became a common practice)
- Before decommissioning of a refinery (required only by EC Directive). This is the saddest case
Eidos develops QRA studies since 1987 using the following “classic approach”: